Varicose veins: what are the causes and what does the pathology arise from?

Varicose veins in the legs are quite a dangerous disease. Therefore, it is important to understand what causes varicose veins to appear. This knowledge makes it possible to timely identify the pathology and begin treatment. So what are the main causes of varicose veins?

Varicose veins on the legs

Genetic predisposition

Often the reasons for the development of varicose veins lie in a hereditary disposition. If both parents have varicose veins, the risk that the child can inherit them is 60%. Recent studies have shown that it is not the disease itself that is transmitted, but a feature of the structure of the blood vessels that, under the influence of negative factors, turns into varicose veins. At the genetic level a predisposition for:

  • Weakening of the walls of the blood vessels of the legs due to insufficient production of elastin and collagen.
  • Violation of the structure or abnormal anatomical development of the valve apparatus of the legs.
  • Insufficient development of the smooth muscle layer of the vein walls.

Congenital varicose veins of the legs are most common in the weaker sex. The reason is that in women the vein walls and valves can only function stably under normal venous pressure. Otherwise, they will no longer be able to cope with the load and will begin to expand first and then to collapse.

The malfunction of the valve apparatus can be absolute. At that moment, the valves cannot withstand the pressure of the column of blood and begin to rotate outward. Typically, this valve failure only occurs on the legs or arms. At this point, the disease begins to develop at a rapid rate, so treatment must be started immediately.

With varicose veins, a relative insufficiency of the valve system can develop. The reason for this is the discrepancy between the diameter of the enlarged vessel on the legs and the size of the valve leaflets. In addition, a poor development of the valve device can lead to relative insufficiency. This pathology is characteristic only of the vessels of the legs. The reasons for the appearance of varicose veins can also lie in a genetically abnormal development of blood vessels - the Parks-Weber-Rubashov syndrome. It is not uncommon for this disease to be accompanied by varicose veins with a pronounced vascular network on the legs. The disease can only be treated with surgery.

Genes and predisposition to varicose veins

Varicose veins in humans can occur due to a hereditary predisposition.

Another disease that can cause varicose veins is Rondu-Osler disease. This hereditary pathology leads to a decrease in the tone of the vein walls, which leads to varicose veins in the legs.

Bad habits

Bad lifestyle is also the direct cause of varicose veins. Nicotine addiction causes various disorders of the leg vessels. Smoking has an extremely negative effect on coagulation, provokes blood thickening and causes thrombosis to develop against the background of varicose veins. There is absolutely no point in going into treatment without a complete denial of nicotine addiction.

The same reason for the pathological condition of the veins is the abuse of alcoholic beverages. Alcohol contributes to the dehydration of the body, as a result of which the vessels and surrounding tissues are not adequately nourished. In addition, taking ethyl alcohol increases agglutination (sticking together of red blood cells) and blood clots. Treatment should primarily focus on eliminating alcohol cravings.

Obesity is another negative factor that affects the appearance of varicose veins. Most often it occurs against the background of the abuse of fatty, fried and smoked foods. The higher the patient's weight, the lighter the clinical picture of the varicose veins of the legs. In this case, the treatment of the underlying disease is carried out against the background of a diet aimed at reducing the patient's weight. Only then does the therapy show itself to be effective.

Smoking as a cause of varicose veins

Bad habits are the direct cause of varicose veins.

A sedentary lifestyle is a real scourge of the modern world. With extremely little physical activity, problems arise such as:

  • Weakness of the muscles of the lower extremities.
  • Violation of blood circulation.
  • Favorable conditions for the development of blood stagnation appear.
  • Endocrine disorders occur.

The listed reasons are ideal conditions for the development of varicose veins of the legs. To prevent, and not treat, the disease, all you need to do is go for a walk, sign up for a gym or pool.

Hormonal disorders

One of the most common causes of varicose veins is hormonal imbalances in the body. Therefore, in women, varicose veins on the legs most often manifest themselves during pregnancy, after childbirth, during menopause or puberty. From a genetic point of view, women are more likely to develop the disease than men.

Studies have shown that men often have varicose veins on their legs due to the excessive level of female hormones in the blood. In this situation, the pain syndrome in men has a wavy character and is directly related to an increase or decrease in the level of hormones. Therefore, doctors performing treatment at the same time stabilize the hormonal background.

Doctors associate an increased level of luteal hormone and a decrease in progesterone in the blood as the cause of varicose veins in women. It is the corpus luteum hormones that promote the relaxation of the walls of the blood vessels, which provokes their expansion. During the research, it was found that in patients with varicose veins of the legs, at the beginning of the menstrual cycle, all symptoms of the disease are exacerbated. And after the level of hormones stabilizes, the manifestations of varicose veins noticeably weaken. Reasons for the development of the disease are also the use of hormonal contraceptives and replacement therapy during menopause.

Pregnancy as a cause of varicose veins

In women, varicose veins are most common during pregnancy.

Overuse and injuries

The causes of varicose veins can be linked to excessive stress on the legs. People with professions such as loaders, cashiers and teachers are at risk. This is due to the fact that in a horizontal position, the vertical flow of blood puts a strong pressure on the veins, the height of which reaches the level of the heart. After treating the patient, doctors recommend switching activities to avoid further relapse.

At the same time, sedentary work also has a negative effect on the legs. Doctors even joke that this is an occupational disease of all office workers. The risk of developing varicose veins is particularly high in people who like to sit with their legs bent or crossed. Because at this moment there is a sharp narrowing of the veins, which leads to poor blood circulation in the legs.

The development of varicose veins often leads to various leg injuries. For example, sprained or torn tendons can significantly increase your risk of developing the disease. In addition, any surgical interventions on the legs can provoke varicose veins. After surgery, treatment should be accompanied by the wearing of compression stockings.

Additional factors

Modern research confirms the fact that any stress or negative emotions cause a malfunction of all human organs. Scientists have shown that not only leg pain, but also vasodilation due to nerves and stress can occur. A psychosomatic illness is treated with the help of antidepressants, hypnosis and psychological therapy.

Blood clotting is of great importance for the entire venous system. For example, too high a viscosity provokes various heart diseases, against which varicose veins can develop. In this case, the first thing to do is to get rid of the cause of the underlying disease that led to varicose veins.

The risk of varicose veins only increases with age. According to statistics, after 40 years, 25% of men suffer from varicose veins in the legs, after 70 years this number doubles. In addition, according to the same statistic, 60% of women who have reached this age already have clinical manifestations of this disease. Knowing the causes of varicose veins will help significantly reduce the risk of their development. However, if the signs of the disease have already become noticeable, then you should urgently contact a phlebologist, who will diagnose and prescribe the necessary treatment. After all, it is much easier and faster to treat the disease in its initial stages.