Doctors not only speak of the "varicose veins" of the world: Up to 40% of women and 20% of men are susceptible to this disease, the symptoms of which can already appear in adolescence! We'll tell you the most important things about varicose veins: treatment, possible complications, Symptoms and preventive measures.
What are varicose veins?
A diagnosis of "varicose veins" means a deformed vein in which the walls thin and the lumen in the vessels increases. How does this happen? Normally, the blood flows up through the veins and special valves prevent the fluid from flowing in under the force of gravitybelow flows: they open, let in blood and close without letting it back in. When the valves do not work well, some of the blood still flows out and stagnates, its volume in a certain area of the vessels increases and creates pressureThe veins on the legs "come out" most often, but varicose veins can affect not only the lower limbs, but also the upper limbs, abdomen, groin and other parts of the body.
The causes of varicose veins
A number of factors can contribute to the appearance of varicose veins. Some of them can be excluded from life with a strong desire, reducing the risk of disease.
- Overweight, obesity. Helps to increase the load on the legs.
- Imbalanced diet. Lack of fiber leads to constipation, which increases blood pressure in the pelvis and causes vein problems in the legs
- Longer static loads. Dangerous "sitting" and "standing" lifestyle, weight lifting.
On the contrary, a person cannot influence some factors. However, you keep your "weak points" under control: carry out prophylaxis, treat leg veins correctly and have them diagnosed in good time.
- Genetic predisposition. The probability of getting varicose veins "inherited" from a mother or father suffering from this disease is very high (up to 90%).
- Vascular injuries and operations. They can negatively affect the functioning of valves, weaken blood vessels.
- Age. The older the person, the weaker the blood vessels and the greater the tendency to develop varicose veins.
How is the appearance of varicose veins related to the soil?
The causes of varicose veins on the legs are gender specific. According to statistics, women get sick almost twice as often as men. This is made easier, among other things, by the love for high heels. However, a more serious risk factor is hormonal imbalance in the body, especially during pregnancy. It increases the stress on all organs and blood vessels are among the first to suffer from it.
Men also have a "gentlemanly set" of risk factors: they are more prone to malnutrition, bad habits, and more physical exertion. The reasons, as you can see, are often different, but the methods of treating varicose veins on the legs of women and men are no different.
How to diagnose varicose veins: the main symptoms
The first signs of varicose veins - large, twisted, swollen veins, "nodules" under the skin - are visible to the naked eye. In the first stages they cause problems of a non-psychological nature (limitation due to the unaesthetic appearance of the legs). However, the symptoms below can significantly affect a person's quality of life and signal the need for immediate treatment.
- Painful sensations on palpation, burning sensation and pain in the veins in the legs
- Feeling of heaviness, tiredness in the legs at the end of the day, which does not go away even after rest.
- Frequent cramps that cause pain.
- Swelling of the feet and ankles.
- Skin discoloration and formation: dryness, pigmentation, ulcers, etc.
- Vascular "cobwebs" are red, purple, blue.
It is important to identify early signs of a blockage in the veins in your legs. Symptoms in combination or individually are a good reason to see a doctor. If left untreated, symptoms worsen and become more common, leading to discomfort and serious consequences.
Why varicose veins are dangerous
Severity, swelling, pain in advanced varicose veins become constant companions of a person and significantly reduce the quality of life. Blood congestion disrupts the nutrition of the skin, which leads to skin diseases (cellulite, trophic ulcers) and thrombophlebitis (inflammation of the veins).
The most dangerous cause of vascular problems is thromboembolism, or blockage of blood vessels with dense blood clots. Blood clots stick to the vein walls and narrow the lumen or, in the worst case, break off, penetrate the circulating blood and clog the vessels. Depending on the location of the blockage, thromboembolism can lead to stroke, myocardial infarction, kidney or spleen, and tissue ischemia with the risk of subsequent gangrene.
It is important to understand that the disease develops gradually. With minor symptoms (swelling of the veins in the legs, occasional edema), you don't have to go to the hospital upside down and lie down on the operating table. But it is also impossible to postpone "sometime later" as it is much easier to "neutralize" the disease in its early stages and without treatment it will only progress.
Classification of varicose veins
There are many ways to classify varicose veins. The most commonly used system is the CEAP, which divides varicose veins into six classes, taking into account the stage, cause, anatomy of the lesion, and pathophysiology.
- Zero. The disease proceeds without any visible signs, symptoms are minor or absent.
- First. Small venous networks appear, heavy legs and night cramps appear periodically. These are reticular varicose veins, a mild form of varicose veins.
- Second. Pronounced dilation of the veins, the condition worsens after prolonged sitting or walking in the heels. The second stage is considered the "starting point", the beginning of the disease.
- Third. There is an edematous syndrome, aching pain in the legs.
- Fourth. It is characterized by skin changes: pigmentation, local inflammation, eczema.
- Fifth. Skin changes continue, healing ulcers appear.
- Sixth. A large number of recurrent open trophic ulcers.
Treatment of varicose veins
With mild symptoms and the first suspicion of the patient, a therapist should be examined, who, if necessary, will refer to a specialized doctor - phlebologist. He will take a medical history, perform a visual exam, and palpate. To understand why the veins in the legs hurt, to identify hidden problems and to prescribe adequate treatment, the following studies are additionally prescribed:
- Ultrasound (Doppler and / or Duplex vessels). Helps examine the condition of the veins and blood flow rate to detect the presence of blood clots.
- Phlebography (x-ray of blood vessels). Used to determine the appearance of veins and valves.
After the diagnosis, the doctor will choose the treatment. Depending on the stage, it can be conservative or surgical. In the very early stages, when there is no threat of thromboembolism and unpleasant symptoms, prevention can often be limited.
Most patients are interested in how varicose veins can be removed without surgery. In milder forms, therapeutic yoga and gymnastics, compression underwear, massage with special ointments, a venotonic / phlebotonic cure are prescribed. All these measures will not help to completely restore blood vessels, but they will stop the progression of the disease, improve the tone of the veins and the quality of the walls of the vessels. Conservative treatment is also prescribed before surgery or when surgery is not possible.
Deep vein lesion, the development of thrombophlebitis, the risk of thromboembolism and other pathological diseases - all these can be a serious reason for surgery. Now he practically offers to heal varicose veins quickly and effectively with the help of modern, low-trauma methods: safenectomy, endovasal laser ablation (removal of veins), sclerotherapy (intravenous injection of an "adhesive" vein solution).
In order not to regularly become a patient of a phlebologist and learn how to treat varicose veins on the legs, you need to follow simple and inexpensive preventive measures. Moderate exercise, especially walking, swimming, and cycling, is the most important way to prevent disease. Proper nutrition is just as important: less starchy and fatty foods - more vegetables, vegetables, foods high in vitamins E, C and P. You also need to develop good habits: do not sit cross-legged, avoid high heels and clothingthat squeeze your body, do physical exercises in the break between sedentary activities, maintain the water balance, minimize the consumption of alcohol, coffee and strong tea, refrain from smoking.