Today the problem of varicose veins is relevant, since every fourth person is faced with this disease, which is accompanied by severe symptoms and often leads to a dangerous complication - thrombophlebitis. In this article, you will learn more about highly effective methods of treating and preventing varicose veins.
Varicose veins: causes and symptoms
With varicose veins, the work of the vessels that transport blood to the heart is disturbed. The disease occurs predominantly in women over 30 years of age. Due to deformations of the venous vessels and closed valves, the blood cannot circulate normally, resulting in impaired blood flow to the heart.
The following factors can be prerequisites for the development of a pathological process in the vessels:
- Genetic predisposition. If one parent suffered from varicose veins due to inadequate valves and weak vascular walls, the child inherits this disease in 70% of cases.
- Obesity. Being overweight increases the risk of developing varicose veins by 35%, as heavy exertion disrupts normal blood flow to the leg veins.
- Pregnancy. The compression of the retroperitoneal veins by an enlarged uterus and a large volume of circulating blood provoke varicose veins.
- Hormonal changes. With hormonal disorders that weaken the muscles and blood vessels, the risk of developing varicose veins increases.
- Way of life. Restricting motor activity (physical inactivity) or staying in static positions for a long time have a negative effect on blood circulation.
In addition, the development of varicose veins can lead to an unbalanced diet with a lack of coarse fiber, which leads to atypical changes in the structure of the vein walls. The likelihood of developing this disease is not excluded from the wearing of pulling underwear that squeezes the blood vessels, as well as against the background of frequent stressful situations, alcohol abuse, smoking, leg injuries.
Symptoms depend on the stage of the disease. Even before the appearance of visual signs, there is a feeling of heaviness in the legs, which is attributed to ordinary tiredness. With the progression of varicose veins, a number of pronounced symptoms are observed: pain in the legs, swelling and cramps in the evening, darkening of the skin color of the legs, appearance of seals, telangiectasias (spider veins), locally dilated veins in the legs, itching, which indicates the impendingIndicates development of trophic disorders. Severe cases of varicose veins are accompanied by dizziness, hyperthermia, bleeding of their venous nodes, thrombophlebitis, trophic ulcers and phlebothrombosis.
Treatment of varicose veins in the legs
Before prescribing treatment for varicose veins, it is necessary to carry out the following diagnostic procedures: ultrasound of the leg veins (ultrasound and Doppler examination), as well as duplex angioscanning, rheovasography. After confirming the diagnosis, depending on the stage of the pathological process, the phlebologist can prescribe:
- Operation using microsurgical techniques. For severe varicose veins, a phlebectomy is performed - removal of the affected veins using a minimally invasive method. Laser or radio frequency coagulation of veins can also be used. Varicose veins are first treated with photocoagulation and spider veins are removed with a laser.
- Sclerotherapy - the introduction of drugs into an enlarged vein that sticks up the walls of the veins. In this case, the patient wears a compression stocking for about 2 months in order to form dense adhesions.
- Conservative treatment, which includes taking phlebotonics, antiplatelet drugs, antioxidants, anticoagulants, and other drugs. This method is relevant in the preoperative period and when it is impossible to surgically remove the veins.
During treatment and after procedures for a month, doctors recommend not lifting weights, wearing compression stockings and using elastic bandages, as well as reducing static loads. At the first symptoms of varicose veins, it is necessary to consult a phlebologist in order to avoid the development of a pathological process that leads to serious complications.
In order to prevent the pathology under consideration and relieve the initial symptoms, it is necessary to adhere to the basic rules of prevention:
- Exercise, swim, and get more exercise regularly. An active lifestyle helps strengthen the vein walls and improve blood circulation.
- Do not abuse hot baths, sun exposure and sauna. Excessive heat decreases the tone of the veins in the legs and leads to blood congestion.
- Giving up bad habits is an effective prevention against varicose veins. Many cardiovascular diseases are associated with unrestricted drinking and smoking.
- Warm up when working with constant static load. For example, if a job requires you to be at the computer all the time, you can walk, crouch, and straighten your feet for 10 minutes every hour.
- Wear comfortable, non-constricting clothing to avoid pinching the veins in your legs and disrupting blood flow. Also, do not wear shoes with a heel of more than 5 cm every day.
- Try to keep your weight normal or try to normalize it through diet.
- Take a contrast shower to improve blood circulation, massage your thighs, legs and feet. When lying on your back, raise your legs 6 inches above your body more often.
A balanced diet is also an excellent way to prevent varicose veins. To avoid disturbances in venous and vascular blood flow, it is necessary to include foods rich in fiber in the diet to limit the use of salt. For people at risk, experts recommend eating radishes, raspberries, carrots, rice, wheat and buckwheat porridge more often. In general, even with hereditary predisposition, you can avoid the development of varicose veins if you follow all rules of prevention.