Varicose veins - causes, diagnosis, treatment and prevention

Varicose veins (varices) – the condition in which the vein diameter increase, become tortuous. Mostly it is connected with the violation of the venous valves.

Varicose veins

The venous System. Features of the structure of the veins.

Venous vessels are part of the cardiovascular system carry the blood from peripheral tissues to the heart. The popular belief that through the veins, the venous blood always flows, and through the arteries arterial. In fact, it is not always so. For example, pulmonary arteries are from the heart of venous blood to the lungs and pulmonary veins return from the lungs into the heart hypertension.

In many arteries, the blood flows under great pressure, so that you have a thick solid wall. On the contrary, in the veins of the blood pressure is quite low, so that its wall is thinner and less dense. In many of the lumens of the veins are valves, the blood only flow in one direction and thus make a contribution to their promotion to the heart. Valves are missing only in the veins of the head and neck, as it flows through the heart, the blood is set free by it down.

What happens in the veins? The essence of varicose veins.

The walls of the veins of the lower extremities forced to constantly elevated stress testing, because of the outflow of blood from these vessels occurs against the force of gravity. The main mechanisms, which are varicose veins:

  • excessive stretching of the vein wall;
  • Malfunction of the venous valves.

Not always can precisely tell, why in the veins, these pathological changes occur. There are factors the risk of developing varicose veins.

Causes of varicose veins

Factors that increase the risk of the disease:

  • Two-legged. This factor is the same in all people. Feet – the most remote from the inner part of the body that is while in the standing and walking out among the rest. The venous blood more difficult, back to the heart from the legs.
  • Age. With the aging of the risk of varicose veins increases, since a fraying of the veins happens flaps. You are no longer fully together, resulting in a small amount of blood to flow in the opposite direction. It stagnates in the veins of the legs, rather than back to the heart.
  • Paul. Women suffer from varicose veins more often than men. This is due to hormonal changes in the female body during pregnancy, in the Menopause, before menses. Female sex hormones promote relaxation of the walls of the veins.
  • Hormone replacement therapy and intake of oral contraceptives.
  • Inheritance. The more family members suffer from varicose veins of the lower extremities, the higher your risk is.
  • Obesity. Extra pounds increase the load on the cardiovascular System. The pressure in the veins rises.
  • Standing or sitting for long periods of time. This leads to a Stagnation of blood in the veins of the lower half of the body. For example, varicose veins, office workers, surgeons, and other people who are the "standing" and "sedentary" work often suffer.
  • Pregnancy. During pregnancy, varicose veins suffer much more frequently than in other stages of life. With some of the physiological changes in the body of a pregnant woman.
Symptoms of varicose veins

Symptoms of varicose veins

  • A significant enlargement of the subcutaneous veins. You grow, become tortuous, clearly visible under the skin. Varicose veins mostly appear as puckering, "worms" of blue or purple. This pattern occurs only in the case of varicose veins, under the skin. If amazed venous vessels, the overlooked deeper in the tissue, externally it is.
  • Feeling of heaviness in the legs. In the rule, or to reinforce after intensive physical loads in the evening and night hours.
  • Various unpleasant sensations. This is a burning sensation, the feeling of Pulsation, tingling, numbness can.
  • Swelling in the legs. Blood stasis in the varicose extended veins leads to linger in the fabric starts and accumulate fluid. Swelling occur in the late afternoon, usually just on the feet. Because the outflow of venous blood increases, swelling apply to the lower leg, the thigh.
  • Muscle cramps. Arise because of of circulatory disorders of the tissues, if the person is a long time.
  • Pain in the legs. Do not disturb, far from all patients. Reinforced with prolonged standing.

Complications of varicose veins

Most do not result in a patient with varicose veins to complications. But the following States can occur:

  • Bleeding. In the case of damage to the skin in the area of the variceal bleeding, the can't stop for a long time. In such cases, you should lie down, raise the legs up and the pressure on a bleeding point. If the blood, you need to see a doctor.
  • Ulcers in varicose veins. It is very painful, mostly in the area of the ankle. Ulcers are caused by the swelling and blood circulation disorders of the tissues in the area of the varicose veins. In General, ulcer pale spot is preceded on the skin. If it is this complication, you should immediately consult a doctor.
  • Thrombophlebitis in varicose veins. Condition in which the wall of the venous thrombi grow and there is an inflammation. In the area of the lesions can cause pain, a feeling of warmth, redness,. In General, in the case of this complication, the doctor will prescribe compression garments medium, pain.
  • Chronic venous insufficiency. A condition in which disturbed exchange of oxygen, nutrients and wastewater treatment products, between the skin and the blood, through the circulatory disorders. Chronic venous insufficiency increases the risk of diseases such as atopic dermatitis, is a rigid fixed skin, trophic ulcer.
  • Venous eczema (congestive Dermatitis). Changes to the skin due to the Stagnation of venous blood and the formation of edema. The main symptoms: red patches, flaking, itching in the area of the varicose veins.
  • Restless-Legs-Syndrome. Characterized by unpleasant sensations in the legs that occur at rest. The Patient must constantly make movement, because of what sleep disorders.

Compression stocking varicose veins

Compression stockings and elastic bandages for varicose veins are shrink enlarged veins, thereby improving circulation. In General, compression clothing, the tight wrapping of the legs around the ankles and the top gradually relaxed. It helps the blood through the veins to move always in the opposite direction of the gravity up to the heart.

Many patients notice that compression help stockings and elastic bandages, with the discomfort, pain, or edema.

In spite of the fact that compression clothing improves blood flow and deal with some of the symptoms, not varicose veins heals. While the studies have mixed results, so the scientists can't say whether compression stockings varicose veins, eliminate or prevent.

Compression clothing

Varieties Of Compression Underwear:

  • Stockings and pantyhose. The most common type of compression underwear. The stockings go up to the thigh, on the tights up to the waist. Compression stockings are securely fixed and do not push.
  • Knee-length. Go up to the king's meadow. Often men will apply. There are different models.
  • Elastic tie. Come in various lengths, may be only for a bandage of the lower leg or the lower leg and thigh. This is the cheapest, but the uncomfortable kind of compression underwear. Bandage must impose longer wear than tights or stockings, it pushes constantly. The degree of compression controlled by manual regulation of the tension of the bandage, and not always appropriate.

Surgery for varicose veins

In case of pronounced varicose veins, leg veins, resorted to surgical treatment. In General, the Operation is performed under General anesthesia. In most cases, the patient was discharged from the hospital on the day of surgery. If the Operation is on two legs, then maybe you need to spend a night in the hospital.

There are different types of surgical treatment of varicose veins.

Ligation and removal of the enlarged veins

Make two sections: one in the bar, the other below, in the area of the ankle, king's meadow, or elsewhere. In the upper Cutaway body find, bind to and cross by Vienna. The behaviour of very thin wire to the bottom of the cut, then pull it together with a wire from below. The removal of the superficial veins veins no impact on the blood supply to the legs, because its function is to take the deep.

Possible complications of ligation and distance from Wien:

  • the formation of large bleeding;
  • Bleeding;
  • Pain;
  • a very rare complication is a thrombosis of the deep veins.

The restoration of the ability to work after such surgery, most patients occurs within 1-3 weeks. All the time have to wear compression stockings. If you use a venous insufficiency, compression garments, and in the long term.


During this procedure, in the vein of a special substance that can damage your wall from the inside and leads to an overlap of the lumen. Varicose veins will take a few weeks. Sometimes the medication has to be entered.

Radio-Frequency Ablation

The technique involves the heating of the vein wall with the help of radio-frequency energy. Course of treatment:

Varicose Vein Ablation
  • Above or below the knee, make a small incision and access to Vienna.
  • Under ultrasound guidance into the vein catheter a hollow flexible tube) is performed (.
  • Then through the catheter the doctor, a probe that emits carries radio frequency energy.
  • Out of the probe energy, the vein wall heats radiated from the inside, causing its combustion and to close the lumen of the vessel.

In General, this surgery is performed under local anesthesia, without General anesthesia. During the procedure, the Patient may to a slight discomfort, similar to Jabs Pins. Sometimes there is a slight burning of the skin. In the weeks after radio-frequency Ablation is necessary, the wearing of compression clothing.

Treatment of varicose veins with Laser

Closure of the lumen of the vein can trigger and with the help of the irradiation their walls from the inside with a laser. Course of treatment:

  • In the vein of the patient catheter is injected.
  • Through a catheter in a vein is the source of laser radiation.
  • The Laser causes heating of Vienna, burn your walls from the inside, and the overlap of the lumen.
  • The surgeon directs the laser beams under ultrasound control and burns the vein wall.

In General, treatment of varicose veins, Laser is performed under local anesthesia. The procedure is effective in 98% of cases.

Exercises for varicose veins

Physiotherapy can benefit in varicose veins of the legs. In the following, we consider the simplest exercise, but prior to your performance, you must consult a doctor. Only your doctor can say for sure what load you are contraindicated, and will be able to benefit.

Exercise can help with varicose veins:

  • the improvement of the outflow of venous and lymphatic vessels;
  • Improvement of the blood supply to the lower extremities;
  • Improvement of Tonus of the walls of the veins;
  • Improvement of blood flow in small vessels;
  • Strengthening of the leg muscles, improving your endurance.

Massage for varicose veins

Massage can also prevent varicose veins, but not always, it depends on the severity and the presence of complications. Not in self-Massage, it is better to a professional Masseur.

Massage for varicose veins helps in reducing symptoms such as swelling, cramps, numbness and other unpleasant sensations. It releases tension in the muscles and promotes recovery of the normal tone of the venous walls. In the case of varicose veins-Massage is often used in combination with physiotherapy.

How to deal with varicose veins at home?

There are some measures that you can apply yourself, at home, in order to reduce the progression of varicose veins and the feeling of discomfort, which he accompanied:

Varicose veins prevention
  • Physical Activity. Walking helps to strengthen the muscles of the legs and enhance the outflow of venous blood. Talk with your doctor, he recommends the right one for you is the level of physical activity.
  • Maintaining a healthy body weight. You keep to a healthy diet. If you suffer from overweight or obesity, try to get rid of the extra pounds. Consult a nutritionist: a specialist's recommendations for the type of performance which are in your case.
  • The right choice of clothes. Do not wear shoes with high heels, tight underwear and clothes that compress the veins.
  • Raising the legs upward. Would be very nice if you make in regular intervals, take breaks, and the lifting of the legs above heart level. When you are sleeping or just lying on the bed, she lay under the feet of the 3-4 pillows.
  • Breaks sitting at long or stand. Try and move every 30 minutes.
  • Do not cross the legs when sitting. For this reason, the veins are compressed, even more against the flow of blood.

Prevention of varicose veins

Completely prevent varicose veins is not possible. The existing prevention measures will help only to delay the disease or slow down progress, if it is not already created.

  • If you sit to long or stand, be sure to take breaks. You are going to knead. If it is possible – possible, lie down and the legs up storage.
  • Try to keep your feet in the raised Position, when you can sit, relax, sleep. Useful sometimes, on the Sofa or on the floor and keep your feet elevated, you are leaned up against the wall.
  • The more your feet are above the level of the heart, the better for your veins.
  • Physical exercises that help to strengthen the muscles of the legs. As a result, the movement of blood through the veins.
  • If you are overweight or obese, try to lose weight. This reduces not only the risk of varicose veins, but also have a positive impact on the health of the entire cardiovascular system.
  • Do not wear tight clothes, especially those that draws in the waist, groin, legs. Because of your outflow of blood through the veins can worsen.
  • Try as little as possible, wear shoes with high heels. To help because of this disturbed muscle tone of the legs, they cease to push the blood through the veins.